Sunday, June 21, 2015

Early photos of the future BISCO site

Coquitlam Archives put up a few photos; they obviously had no idea where they were taken, but I knew immediately where these photographs were taken.


"Power lines along road"  This is actually looking over a field at the new rock wall; Burke Mountain in the distance. The road is today's Lougheed Highway in front of Riverview Hospital, the wall was removed when the highway was widened. Ca.1911-1919


"Power lines along road 2" same as above

 "Stone gates" Misnomer there :)  ca.1911-1919. See below for a latter view



The Administration building. ca.1925; CVA 371-313
Note the wall on the left, now widened to accommodate the steps leading up past a water feature on the way to the Administration building.  Sadly all of this was destroyed when the Lougheed Highway was widened, and when Valleyview 300 was built.  View this Google Streetview Image, to see how it appears today from almost the same vantage point.



"Stone fence and power lines along road" Now this is looking straight along the rock wall, Coquitlam Mountain way off in the distance. Today, Lougheed Highway is where this wall was.
Notice way off at the end of the field that there is two buildings one appears to be a church ! this is in the same location as the Power distribution building. Interesting that this was beside today's cemetery
The building to the left of it, is in the exact location of today's Ambulance Station, which was at one time the home of a BISCO official, the stated date for that home is 1923, but this photo must be before 1920, because BISCO was built in 1920.  Makes me wonder if this home is earlier in date than stated, maybe it was the home of the resident theologian.?

"Fence and river" Notice the bridge on the left; it was never known until this image appeared that there was a bridge here at one time, probably lost in the 1921 flood, and never replaced.  The Coquitlam River, today has been straightened out through here, the area with the river in it on the right is today land, and the river roughly parallels the wall. The future Lougheed Highway is of course just over the wall.


BISCO piggery. ca.1925; CVA 371-316 .  This image was taken slightly higher in elevation, but almost looking in the same direction as the photo immediately above.

Friday, January 17, 2014

Auditorium 1924

Sadly this building is long gone, it was in front of the present day, Hillside building.

Here is the article from "The Coquitlam News" 7 November 1924

Transcribed here for your perusal:

INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL GREATEST MONUMENT

Auditorium formally opened
      Boys did entire work of construction
             Youth are self-governed

    Packed to the doors, with all standing room occupied, the newly completed auditorium for the Boys' Industrial School was opened on Wednesday evening.

      Entering―the program had well begun―the ready impression was that the pupils and their instructors were fully enjoying each other's confidence and were untiring in activity.

A magnificent building containing Class Rooms in addition to the "Assembly" So intensely interesting were the exercises from start to finish that the three hour program held to closest attention everyone in the audience.

        After an opening address by Supt. D.B. Brankin, W.H. McGinnis, civil service commissioner was introduced by the speaker as Chairman. Mr. McGinnis, after formally declaring the new building opened, commented upon the marvellous changes during the past three years under the management of Supt. Brankin and his instructors, and also from the goodwill and labor of the boys themselves.

      From a steep bare slope, which in winter had been a scene of mud and small torrents of water, beautifully healthful grounds had been formed he stated, on which handsome up-to-date buildings had been erected.
These included offices, classrooms, dormitories and even modern barns and poultry houses. The institution maintained that prize-winning herd of "Biscoq" purebred Jersey Cattle.


The best example of the proof that a "Boy is worth more than a dollar" is found in the result of the training at the Boys' Industrial for upright Canadian Citizens.
The program was one of the best in all probability that any one present had enjoyed. There was not a hitch. The songs, recitations, Playing acting, club exercises, flag drills all and each bore the impress of efficiency. In execution all bore evidence of careful preparation.
Just inimitable were most of the parts taken. Perhaps to the best advantage did they appear when taking the role of women or girls, then times without number, they “Brought down the house", The Skits were studied and skilful.

But Assemblage, Auditorium, Formal Opening and all were but setting...The real and underlying exhibition was concerning what the Boys are capable of doing.
These boys built the whole fabric. They did the plumbing, the cement work, the carpentry, the painting as well as the finishing work. So they have left the impression that the whole boy is going to School at Industrial. Wonderful exhibition of the things that can be accomplished by well directed activity!

It costs a few thousand dollars to train these boys for good clean industries and honest citizenship.
On the other hand it costs the Country millions to deal with its Delorme, its Loeb and its Leopold.
The accompaniment on the piano was by some of the boys themselves. As for the Band its leader, Mr. Ayling and the various members of it won the admiration of all present.

Mr. A. Rayner, on all occasions recognized as the Boys' Friend, sang in his own very captivating style, every note of several captivating songs.
Matron Mrs. Brankin, with all the assistance of the staff prepared the students and acted as coach where necessary.

Supt. Brankin gave an address in between the acts. It was interesting. The lumber used in the building was largely taken from old structures. There is a large Basement. On the ground floor is the spacious Auditorium, with stage and cinema equipment. The seating capacity is 300. Walls are well lined with prettily grained laminated material. The whole room is illuminated by lamps of various artistic design. On the floor above there are three classrooms, a teacher's room and library.

Among those present were;―
Rev. Dr. Sanford, New Westminster
Rev. Mr. and Mrs. Gibson, Maple Ridge
Dr. Carson, Marpole
Miss Hamilton, Matron, Marpole Hospital
School Trustee, Galer, Coquitlam
Mr. J.R. McKenzie, Coquitlam
Councillor Walker
Trustee W.J. Scott


Today, all that is there on this site is a small cinder-block generator building.
Things that you could not get the children to do today.
I think that the building was torn down in the 1960's, no one seems sure of an exact date.



Saturday, November 30, 2013

Early stages of Cottages 2 and 3

This image was in the Riverview Heritage Society collection, and used in the Coquitlam 100 years book, some of the pictures of which are now online HERE.

     The foundation is being dug for Cottage 3 in this photo dated 28 June 1920, and the foundation and half brick wall of Cottage 2 is visible in the far left. Note the light rail being used to move the excavated materials, probably be human, and horse power, also note that the area was previously being used for farming, the line of short trees in the upper middle to right are probably defining where Davidson Creek is. Coquitlam River in the far middle distance  LINK

Saturday, March 9, 2013

Costs,costs,costs

A newspaper article from March 10, 1922;

BOYS INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL

This school at Essondale has 69 boys in it, with 24 officials in charge, at salaries aggregating $35,000 per year. Including these salaries the expense of maintenance is $100,000 per year. the building was started two years ago and cost $400,000 Do you not think there could be a little shrinkage here? But never mind. You and you children will pay the excess.
---
Some things never change!

Tuesday, August 16, 2011

D.B. Brankin in the news

D.B. Brankin's methods appear to have irritated a few bureaucrats while he was superintendent; here is one of a few that I have found:

The Vancouver Sun, January 23, 1922
CHANGE IN BOYS’ SCHOOL IS DENIED
Child welfare association takes action on rumour of removal of D.B. Brankin

Is the Provincial Government planning to supplant D.B. Brankin as head of the Boys' Industrial School?
Current rumour has it that this institution is to be transferred from the Attorney-General's Department to the Provincial Secretary's Department and placed under the administration of a member of the medical profession. The theory back of this proposed change is that the problem of correction is a medical one.
In his two years as superintendent of the institution Mr. Brankin has introduced many reforms in the management of the school and in the handling of the boys. These innovations, especially the "honor system" of control, which has eliminated a large number of the guards and has produced a much better spirit among the youngsters, have been widely approved.
Has local support
John Edward Carpenter, president of the Child Welfare Association, when asked about the rumour said that it had reached him also and that he promptly wired to Victoria for confirmation.
"I have received an answer from the attorney-general stating that there is nothing to it." said Mr. Carpenter, "and I sincerely hope that this is right, as there would certainly be great disappointment in child welfare circles if his authority were to be interfered with.
"If anybody else were appointed superintendent our executive would promptly meet and probably call a mass meeting of protest. Mr. Brankin has done good work and nobody who has the welfare of the boys at heart could consider any change that would affect the influence Mr. Brankin has over them."

Friday, July 15, 2011

Doukhobor children at Bisco

I came across a newspaper clipping in James Skitt Matthews, book; Early Vancouver, Vol.2.
He actually wrote the newspaper article, and I have faithfully transcribed it here;

The Sunday Province, Vancouver, B.C. September 25, 1932.

Official wins confidence of Doukhobor boys.

Superintendent D.B. Brankin finds his new charges interesting experiment―little rebels settling down to life at Coquitlam Industrial School under gentle treatment.
By J.S. Matthews.

I was signing my name on the visitors; register―a surprise visit―at the entrance to the Provincial Industrial School for Boys, Coquitlam, when a voice from behind cheerily exclaimed "Well, well look who's here." Turning round, there stood Superintendent D.B. Brankin, late of that muddy ditch "Regina Trench," Somme, where as a sergeant, he narrowly missed being decorated with a D.C.M.
"So you've ousted Veregin from his command"!
"Not wholly true," parried Mr. Brankin, "though I am in charge of ninety-two young Douks." Then he began to tell me the story.

Subtle treatment is rewarded.


"Like most boys, they were a bit unmanageable at first; now they give no trouble. About half are big boys, eighteen and under, the remainder, little fellows. The bigger boys told me when they first came, that they would not work. My response was that I did not want them to; that I had other boys who would do all the work that I wanted done. I told them that when I wanted anything done I would let them know, and I should expect them to do it, but just then I did not want anything.
They next told me they would eat only such food as they wanted to eat. I enquired what food they would like; I would get it for them; but I told them frankly that, if they wanted a special menu, different from that of the other boys, that I would not prepare it for them; they would have to do that themselves. The big boys seemed glad enough to do this, and also promised me to look after the smaller ones; so I set them up in a kitchen of their own. Mrs. Brankin had plenty of food of the kind they asked for put where they could get it.
"You see, they will not eat flesh meat, fish, nor eggs; they want raw vegetables, salads, soups and vegetable oils such as olive oil. They are fond of fruit and sunflower seeds. I must say the bigger boys carried out their promises in a manner satisfactory to me.

Scarecrow job was too much.

"We have been bothered lately with birds eating our crops, so we decided to make some scarecrows, and stand them out in the fields. Then I thought of a better plan. I took the bigger Doukhobor boys out on the farm, stationed them at intervals midst the foliage, with orders to stay there, and shoo the birds away. I told them all they had to do was to stay exactly where they were put, and shoo the birds away; nothing more. They were not to work, nor to wander around. The weather was fine and the sunshine good for them.
"After two or three days, it chanced I was passing by when one of the boys beckoned to me to come to him, so I went over. The boy said, "This is foolish."
"Of course it's foolish," I agreed, "But you don't want to work." The boy answered that they wanted to work, so I told him I would think about it.
Boys at last begged for work.
"That afternoon I was again approached: "When could we start work?" I asked when they wished to start; the answer was, "at once." I promised I would consider it further, but the next day I got some benches and told them to sit down on them, which they did―all day.
"But the following day I told them I had decided they could start. They started at once, have been at it since and work like good boys. They're up at the playground now; come on up, and i'll get them to sing for you."
At the far end of the playground some were playing ball; nearer, others were at marbles. The sun was slowly setting; it would soon be time for them to get to their dormitories, Mr. Brankin called, and a flock of youngsters came running from all directions like chickens to a clucking hen. They ranged themselves into a tightly knitted group; the taller ones in the rear, the shorter in the front.
"Boys," said the superintendent with a smile, "these ladies and gentlemen are from Vancouver. I have been telling them how nicely you can sing. I would like you to sing a song or two for them."

Singing charms the visitors.

There was no hesitation, no accompaniment, no leader, no movement; song just burst forth from well behaved, bareheaded boys, all solemnly singing in splendid rhythm, perfect unison, all save one very little fellow who stood mystified, half hidden midst his taller brethren; shrill alto voices carrying song far over the beautiful grounds resplendent in a mass of flowering blooms. We removed our hats; at the conclusion of each hymn all boys reverently bowed their heads.
First it was the "Volga Boatman," then some hymns. They sang and sang until it seemed they must tire, yet with a willingness which clearly demonstrated them to be happy―as circumstances permitted―and to appreciate the kindness, and tender yet firm discipline under which they live. Their faces showed scarce a smile; faces for boys too solemn, as of children who knew neither laughter nor shouts.  At least they ceased, and we went nearer to thank them.
Our words of appreciation were scarcely out of our lips when a chorus of voices exclaimed "You're very welcome, sir." The leading boy singer stepped forward, smiles as we grasped his hand, the group dispersed and straggled off to their sleeping quarters. Even their aversion to marching in fours―a military formation―is respected.
It was a touching, hopeful scene; not without an element of sadness that these little chaps, through no fault of their own, should be separated from those they loved, yet convincingly for their good. An examination of their schoolbooks, lying on their desks, showed evidence of very good penmanship, and skill at freehand drawing.
At the other end of the grounds―the Doukhobor children are treated as a distinct and separate unity―the boys of the Industrial School proper stood "at ease," under their masters, awaiting the proper moment for the proud ceremony of lowering the Union Jack at the close of the day. The boys came to "attention," the bugles blew the "Retreat," Slowly the emblem of our land was lowered, inch by inch; the boys band poured forth the National Anthem. A few sharp commands, "form fours," "quick march," and to "Onward, Christian Soldiers," by the band in front, they marched off to bed; an impressive ceremony, dignified and orderly, features so lacking in the dispersal of the Doukhobor children a few moments previously.
"What do you expect to make of them?" we queried of the superintendent, with our mind to the young Doukhobors.
"Make of them?" responded Mr. Brankin, "well, we have much hope; there's possibilities in most of those boys. But it will take patience and―time."







David Brownwood Brankin












More information:


A little background to the story.   In the spring of 1932,  600 men and women were convicted for nudity and given three-year prison terms on Pier's Island. 365 children needed to be cared for until their parents were released between October 1934 and July, 1935.


Piers Island: The Doukhobor Period, 1932-1935; By A. Harold Skolrood.  A good outline about why the children were incarcerated into care.

Ronald Henry Clarke Hooper "Custodial care of Doukhobor children in British Columbia, 1929-1933,"
(M.S.W. thesis, University of British Columbia, 1947). (not online, unless you have UBC library access.)

Apparently 92 boys were kept at BISCO, ranging in age from 7 to 18. (One of which was under the care of the Mental Hospital.)

Listing of all the children incarcerated,(PDF)
         (Note: I counted 95 males between the age of seven and eighteen, in this list.)

Sonya White, thesis dissertion,(PDF)   Contains a brief mention of a punishment meted out.
         (Note:  The "Black hole" mentioned in this article are the cells, located in the basement of the Administration building.)

Wednesday, September 26, 2007

Youth in trouble

The boys where on site from 1922 to 1954, when they re-located to Brannan Lake, near Nanaimo. The last few years of their stay here seems to have been tumultuous, numerous escapes, arsons...If you have any information about BISCO please post it in the comments, or get in touch by messaging me. Bisco boys, the "tatties" tell a story......

Remaining buildings locations

Remaining buildings locations

Kids in trouble 1857 to 1960

Short chronological history of juvenile detention facilities in the, southwest corner of the Province; with emphasis on the BICSO era; 1922-1955. Boys Industrial School of Coquitlam (BISCO)

Started as the, Boy's Industrial Training School, in 1922 to near the end of 1954.


Click on chapter headings

1857-1910

1910-1920

The Beginning of BISCO

Buildings

1920-1930

1930-1940

1940-1950

1950-1960

Appendix

Bibliography


1857-1910

1857: Act for the establishment of prisons for young offenders.

1860: New Westminster Gaol - closed in 1886. First warden Capt.John Pritchard.

1871-1976: When the death penalty was abolished, 139 persons had been hung. Archie McLean, was the youngest to be executed at only seventeen years of age in New Westminster on January 31,1881.

1890: Reformatory Act.

1890-1: The Province's first Juvenile Reformatory for boys was established in Victoria. Juveniles now kept separate from adult prisoners. First warden was J.Finlayson.

1905, Feb, l: The first for boys was in Vancouver; at this time the name was changed from Reformatory to Industrial school. Named the Provincial Industrial School for boys,(B.I.S.) at Jericho Beach, Vancouver opened Feb,1,1905. Fourteen juveniles by October 31. Daniel Donaldson, Vancouver clothier and a board member of the Children’s Aid Society, appointed the first superintendent. Instructor: A.W.Jones. Cook: J.Inglis. The "Mark" system imposed in 1906

1908: Federal; Juvenile Delinquents Act; establishing juvenile courts. The Juvenile Courts Act, was also passed.

1909 Formal name change from Reformatory to Boys Industrial School,(B.I.S.). Government found out it could not prosecute those who harbored escapees, unless changed.

Return to Index

1910-1920

1910: As a result of an error that failed to give Vancouver juvenile court, jurisdiction for Criminal Code offences, the Juvenile Delinquents Act, was proclaimed again for Vancouver.

1911 Industrial Home for Girls Act. Donaldson had the inmates dig a 200 foot long trench,12-15 feet deep, for replacement of a sewer line: " The excavating...meant a great deal of hard work for the boys, but the practical experience received by the half-dozen boys who did the work...will be useful to them later on. " One of the reasons Donaldson cited for escape attempts was “The terrible craving that comes over them for tobacco, as with very few exceptions the boys that enter the school are confirmed cigarette fiends, and the intense longing for a smoke is such that they are prepared to run all kinds of risks in order to gratify the appetite."

1912: Oakalla prison farm opens. First warden; W.G.McMynn. At first 25 prisoners in work gangs, cleared the site; building completed in 1914. Designed for fifty women,(first in BC) and 150 men; Women’s unit built in 1950. Youth Unit built in 1951. Two more buildings by 1954. Population at times soared up to 1,200, designed for only 900.

1914: Industrial School for Girls ;( Vancouver), opens on a seven-acre site at 800 Cassiar St.. First superintendent ;(H.W.?)J.H.Collier; Matron:I.Collier(Amelia Collier?). Space was provided for gardening and outdoor exercise in a home-like atmosphere.

1918 Bread and water diet abolished.

1919 45.45% of the boys, were considered to be in the moron or imbecile class. "Report of the grand jury, 1919." Spanish influenza epidemic, 78 of 99 boys contracted the disease. The girls’ reformatory has no cases.

Return to Index

1920-1930

1920 Donaldson abruptly dismissed in January. 500 children have passed through during his tenure. He is replaced by a trained child welfare worker, who immediately depersonalized the position. During WWI 70% volunteered.

1920-1922: Industrial school relocated to the Essondale site.

The early history of BISCO

1922 "Boy's Industrial Training School" for juvenile delinquents is opened to the north of the Riverview site.

The Provincial Industrial School for Boys

Consisted originally of five Tudor-revival style cottages, the Provincial Industrial School for Boys was constructed on the site in 1920-21, as a school for "incorrigible youth", with the first annual report issued in 1923. The school was the successor to the provincial juvenile reformatory system established in 1890 with a mandate to guide the education, industrial training and moral rehabilitation of boys sentenced to confinement by law. It can be said that there was likely both happy and sad incidents at the school, although anecdotally it appears to have been better place to be than on the street or in jail.

Likely sited here because of its relative isolation, the impact of the Boy's School on the Northeast Sector was immense. The school also took advantage of medical or psychiatric therapy available through Essondale hospital, and the boys were full participants, along with patients and staff, in the social and recreations activities that took place on the site. There was a policy in place in which doctors from Essondale alternated in caring for the boys at the Industrial School.

In 1957 a portion of the BISCO lands were used to create the, Essondale cemetery: Oral sources indicate that the cemetery was created for patients only; while primarily used for patients who had died without family or means for outside burial, there were families who specifically requested that the patient be buried in the cemetery.

The Legacy of the Boy's Industrial School

The Department of Public Works was responsible for the initiation of all of the capital projects at the Boy's School, and which worked closely with the administration in having boys at the school participate in a number of building projects on the site. The majority of the projects on the school grounds were completed by inmates at the school under the supervision of the Department of Lands and Works. The scope and nature of these projects can be found in the Appendix.

The buildings for the Industrial School were designed by architect Henry Whittaker,(1886-1971) as the province's chief architect through the Provincial Department of Public Works. In a system that evolved under Whittaker after the end of the First World War, architects were employed by the Department and prepared plans for government buildings such as schools, hospitals, courthouses and jails. The Department produced specialized plans for individual buildings, but also prepared standardized plans that could be adapted to different places and conditions.

The cottage buildings were described as "well lighted and well ventilated dormitories", and were surrounded by stone walls and ornamental landscaping.

The following is a description of the school buildings in 1927:

Location - We are situated on the Dewdney Trunk Road, one mile from Port Coquitlam, and reached by British Columbia Motor Transportation.

Return to Index

The Buildings

Buildings - These consisted of three cottages, administration building, kitchen block, auditorium, barn and poultry buildings, and temporary workshops, and are used as follows:

Tudor revival style, with brick foundations and trim. Roughcast stucco cladding, with prominent hip rooves. Stucco and half-timbering on the second floors. Window sash replaced by aluminum windows in some areas of cottages 1,2 and 3.

Cottage No. 1 (ca.1921) BCBC# 22251 Orchid Drive.

Has three dormitories holding thirteen beds each, with a dressing-room and lavatories attached, a large reading and rest room, one section of private rooms for star boys, staff quarters, assembly rooms in basement, and one room for refractory boys. All newcomers over 16 years of age were placed in this cottage upon their admittance. Last used as a Light urban search & rescue training centre. Unused at present. 862.90sq./M floor area.

Cottage No. 2 (ca.1922) BCBC# 22269 Rose Way

Has three dormitories holding thirteen beds each, with a dressing-room and lavatories attached, reading and rest rooms, staff quarters, assembly rooms in basement. This cottage is set aside exclusively for the younger boys, who must attend school all day and who are kept apart from the boys in the other cottages. Unused at present. 1061.31sq./M floor area.

Cottage No. 3 (ca.1922) BCBC# 22277 Holly Drive.

Identical in construction to No. 1 and 2 but one dormitory is used as a hospital ward and one assembly room as an isolation ward. This cottage is used by boys who have proven themselves worthy of a little better consideration, and who are attached to some vocational class or are members of the School Band. Unused at present. 1061.31sq./M floor area.

Administration Building, Valleyview Lodge( ca.1920-1922) Converted in 1936 to Valleyview Home for the Aged BCBC #22327 Iris Crescent
Consists of Superintendent and staff quarters, offices, surgery, visitor's rooms, store rooms.
Cornerstone laid on September 30, 1920 by J.W.DeB.Farris, K.C. Attorney general of B.C. One basement window has steel bars;("The Hole"?). Valleyview lodge still has the original multi-panned, double hung wooden window sash.727.72sq./M floor area. Unused at present.

Cottage 110 Chief Stewards residence Bisco (ca.1922) BCBC# B21915 Holly drive.

Today it is used by the Personal Independence Program,(PIP).

Two-storey stucco-faced symmetrically massed, with offset entry porch, multi-paned windows. Hip roof.

Nearly all of the other buildings have been destroyed.

Kitchen and Dining Room Block consists of kitchen and "Store room, four dining rooms, dental, first aid and band rooms, tailoring department, shoemaking shops and several small rooms used for stores.

Auditorium Building consists of a large auditorium seating 300, two classrooms, room set apart for religious worship, swimming tank and gymnasium.

Workshops (temporary) consist of carpenters, plumbing, electrical and blacksmith departments.

Farm buildings consist of a dairy barn, silo, feed rooms, bull pens, horse barn, piggery and poultry houses.

The Hillside building site held the Industrial School vocational building in 1933, and a dormitory in 1937; the current building was constructed in 1964-66 specifically to house life skills training for Essondale, where patients were instructed in basic day-to-day skills such as cooking, taking a bus and paying bills. The craftsman style ambulance station is listed as being a residence, and the cemetery building was constructed to support the cemetery functions.

All BISCO building are rated to have heritage significance.

The three modern Valleyview buildings, constructed in 1955-59 reflect the hospital's later use of the site, as does the chapel/auditorium building built at the same time.

The 1930 annual report of the Boy's School notes:

Above all things, we love our gardens, because of the encouraging influence they have upon our boys and the value of the lessons nature teaches through flowers.

The school had an active farming component, generally located towards the northwest of the site and adjacent and above the playing fields. The farm consisted of five departments: Dairying; piggery; general farming and kitchen gardens; land clearing, teaming, hauling and road work; and poultry ranching. Milk, beef, veal, pork, eggs and chickens were furnished to the school kitchen. In some years, eggs were shipped to other provincial institutions such as the Tranquille Sanatorium, the Provincial Home in Kamloops, Essondale Mental Hospital and the New Westminster Hospital, as well as to relief camps. The general farming and kitchen gardens produced a number of vegetables as well as silage and hay for the livestock (see Appendix for data on produce grown on the farm).

In 1935 the Provincial Home for the Aged Act was passed and the Industrial School cottages were upgraded and handed over to the Home for the Aged in May of 1936. The Boy's School was moved to the building formerly designated as the Trades Building which was completed for the purpose. The former staff quarters building, first built as a classroom, was finished as quarters for the female members of the staff.

Coinciding with this, the School underwent a change in policy in 1935, which emphasized the role of the institution as a school, rather than as a penal institution as it was currently defined in the Provincial Statutes. The outside work program was curtailed to the point where it was used as an instructional device, rather than overwhelming drudgery, leaving more time for courses and vocational learning. In 1946,160 acres of land in Wellington, near Nanaimo on Vancouver Island, was acquired for the establishment of a new industrial school, which prepared to move from Coquitlam to its new surroundings.

Of the five units taken over by the Home for the Aged, three were used for patient occupancy, and one as a kitchen unit. The final cottage was used as a nurse's residence and administration unit, commonly known as the Tea House and currently the Valleyview Lodge. These buildings formed the nucleus for future building for the aged during the 1940s when the three Valleyview buildings were constructed. The largest, and last, major building built for patient use was the Valleyview Pavilion, also referred to as Valleyview 300. It was opened in 1959 and has always been used exclusively for geriatric patients.

Impacts of the construction and continued development of the Boy's School on the site were considerable, much of it "...slashing and clearing on the hillside in preparation for ploughing" as noted in the 1922 annual report of the school.

Historical air photos show the extent of this clearing which was carried out almost on a yearly basis until the 1930s. Air photos from 1930, 1938 and 1946 show major clearing above the school in 1930, and a gradual regeneration of the forest until 1946. The digging of numerous ditches to provide drainage and thus arable land also had an impact on the natural environment of the site. The major ditch that runs north-south and around the area that eventually became the cemetery, seen on the 1927 plan, is discernible in the 1946 air photo. Parts of this ditch still remain on the site.

Building development on the site began with the cluster of five cottages and the roadway circulation in 1920-21. Development continued with the construction of the playing fields and placing of playground equipment in 1923, the location of which is noted on the attached plan. In 1925, excavation was completed for the new auditorium; in 1930 the new school room was built. Both of these buildings were located in a second major development area, to the south of the cottages.

Planting of vegetation on the site was a continuous activity from the early 1920s until 1936 when the lands were ceded to the Home for the Aged. The curved road from the northeast corner and its associated tree planting was completed in 1934. This road and its trees is one of the major features remaining on the site. In 1936, reporting shifted from one overall reporter to each department submitting their own reports, focusing more on the educational aspects of their activities rather than on capital construction. Changes in 1936 coincide with the takeover of five of the buildings, and the farm, by the Home for the Aged. After the transfer of school lands and buildings to the Home for the Aged in 1936, the Boy's School lands consisted of approximately 3.38 acres, and the Home 203.32 acres.

Agricultural Legacy

While the focus of agricultural production was centered at the Colony Farm site, the Essondale hospital grounds were home to a number of agricultural activities as well. The Annual Reports give detailed lists of the type and quantity of agricultural products that were produced on the Essondale part of the site.

The focus of production was located in the centre of the site, between the nurse's home and the Boy's Industrial School, and below the cottages, encompassing much of the area occupied today by the North Lawn building and grounds. This area was devoted to vegetables and nursery stock, while a piggery was located up the hill above the Female Chronic Block. The Boy's School was equally involved in intensive cultivation of both produce and stock, with extensive chicken and dairy production located on the slopes above the sports grounds.

The nursery was equally productive, shipping trees and shrubs to numerous public schools, hospitals and government agents.

The largest orchard on the site was located at the south end of the hospital grounds, as an adjunct to Colony Farm. Clearing for an orchard just above the railway tracks, but still on the lowlands of Colony Farm, had commenced during the work at Colony Farm.

The area immediately above the CPR, which we are now clearing, will make a splendid site for orchard purposes.

1921 Superintendents report of 1921; five very comfortable cottages completed for employees. Mr.Fitzgerald and Mr.Lonsdale, along with other mechanical employees built the cottages, for the Subnormal boy’s school. (Possibly cottages 111, 112, 113,??,??.

1923

Grading - Boys coming to the school first are usually put on this kind of work that is, providing they are above school age - in order to enable them to get the benefit of fresh air and to be built up.

Work completed during the year:

Leveling the parade and football grounds

Erection of playground equipment consisting of parallel bars, giant-stride swings

Building a retaining wall

Layout of the grounds, gardens, etc.

Shrubberies around the bandstand

Slashing and clearing on the hillside preparatory to plowing

Coquitlam Star: Aug, 10 BISCO D.B.Brankin,supt.; Sept, 21 Escapee from BISCO is found on Bowen Island.; November 11: WWI Cenotaph unveiled across from Aggie hall (now demolished) in the today’s, Minnie McMitchell Park.The cenotaph was moved to Port Coquitlam City hall grounds many years later. Roy Leigh; Mrs Lovell sr. and others met at Bob Gillespies house to collect monies to build the cenotaph. The Boys Industrial School band, under R.C.Ayling opened the unveiling with "0 Canada". The cenotaph was relocated in 1968 beside Port Coquitlam, city hall on Shaughnessy Street.

1924

Garage - Roads in poor condition during the year.

Work completed during the year

Laying down of a water main to the new cottage erected for the farmer, a distance of 325 yards, and to the new poultry house on the hill, a distance of approximately 850 feet

Considerable grading carried out around the playfields

Several hundred trees and shrubs planted

Laying curbs around the roads leading to, the kitchen and administration blocks (under the direction of the Public Works Department)

1925

Public Works - During the year considerable improvements have been made around the grounds by the Public Works Department, amongst them being the installation of a road-lighting system, interior decorating of No. 2 cottage, new curbing, and providing plans for the new swimming tank and gymnasium.

Work completed during the year:

Hundreds of yards of drain dug

Work on the sports fields

Erection of fences around pasture-fields and poultry runs

Excavation of the new auditorium

Building of roads and parks to auditorium

Curbs and general improvements around the buildings (under the direction of the Public Works Department)

Coquitlam Star: May, 14 BISCO to have swimming pool, the boys are pouring concrete with contractor Wingrove. Messrs.D.R.Stewart and J.R.McKenzie supervising.; May, 21 David B.Brankin;superintendent;BISCO, buys himself a Oakland Six coach. {Wonder how long until, it was stolen!. } [ David Blackwood Brankin d.Nelson, dec.,8,1961 ]; Sept, 17 BISCO boys give a good showing of cattle at fair.; Dec, 10 BISCO Jerseys show well.

1926

Grading and General Work - In this section new-comers over the age of 15 are kept for at least thirty days, also boys who become difficult to handle during the year.

Work completed during the year:

Hundreds of yards of cedar drains put in to carry surface water

Making of new roads

Grading of banks

Excavation for a swimming tank 90 x 45

Mixing by hand of all concrete used on the tank

Leveling of the earth taken from the tank and turning same into a tennis court

Removing 2,000 yards of hard pan from sports field

Considerable bush clearing

Over 700 trees and shrubs were planted around the grounds and on the banks necessitating a number of trips to the Essondale Nurseries, hauling manure and digging holes

Five acres of land cleared of stumps fallen logs and rocks

Hauling from the river bed [Coquitlam River] 370 loads of gravel for swimming tank and roads

Coquitlam Star: Apr, 29 D.B.Brankin,supt. of BISCO.

1927

Work completed during the year:

Fitting up of an old Ford engine to drive a circular saw to cut cordwood

Ploughing and grading lawns in front of cottages

Hauling rock and soil for grading

New road to barn

Tree and shrub planting

500 shrubs and trees (new)

150 shrubs and trees (replanted)

122 fruit trees (new)

450 currant bushes (transferred to new location)

516 raspberry canes (transferred to new location)

426 raspberry canes (planted in nursery for future use)

1928

Work completed during the year:

Considerable land-clearing and lawn-making, in addition to the ordinary farm work and clearing fields of stones and stumps

1929

Bird Houses - During the year we received from the Vancouver Exhibition Association, through the secretary, Mr., J. K. Matheson, a gift of Australian lovebirds, zebras and canaries, which was very acceptable and much appreciated by the boys of Biscoq.

Work completed during the year:

Considerable land clearing and lawn making

Clearing, grading and hauling of rocks for implement shed

244 loads of gravel from the river for roads and cement work

Construction of new lawns in front of Administration Building, new entrances and sidewalks leading up from road, a beautiful fountain, concrete, greenhouse, new roads behind poultry-house, a number of new drains, and several other improvements around playing fields by the Cement and General Work Gangs

Flower gardens extended and considerably improved; no doubt will be a pleasure this year.

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1930-1940

1930

Flower Gardens - In spite of the backwardness of the season, the gardens at Biscoq last year were better than ever. The pansy section of over 3,000 roots made a very attractive picture. The roses also were exceptionally nice, and the same may be said of the gladiolas, rockeries and shady nooks.

Work completed during the year:

Completion and grading west section of front lawn, replacing old dead shrubs and trees, making new flower beds and shrubbery.

Completion of excavation, concrete and plastering work of the new school room, septic tank and chimney. Excavating, grading, putting in new piers and sinks for the new poultry-houses and

Excavating basement for building 60 x 30 feet, excavating and putting in a new basement under the carpenter shop, 30 x 18 feet

Excavating and doing all cement for building to be used for fire apparatus

270 feet of cedar culvert drains

Grading and gravelling roads

1931

Work completed during the year:

Numerous minor repairs to buildings, regrading and repairing old roads, making new road. Digging ditches, and extending playgrounds, all carried out in conjunction with the Public Works Department

1931 John Howard Society established, executive-secretary Rev.J.D.Hobden.

1932

Work completed during the year:

Grading for lawns, new roads, putting drains and culverts and repairing old roads

Concrete walls and footings for the new Vocational Building

Made 4,000 cement bricks

Built a rock wall four feet high and 25 feet long on the farm

1933

Work completed during the year:

New fences, archways, bridges and various flower boxes and stands were built for the gardens and two very pretty Japanese bridges were designed and constructed for the Ravine, all by the Carpentering Department

New garden beds, rockeries, terraces were made

A new rock wall built in the Ravine

Brick piers made for the Vocational Building, also the cement floor and walls

1934

Work completed during the year:

Built a new road up to the farm, fencing it and planting trees and shrubs on either side. A new rock wall was completed and several chimneys rebuilt

The chimney was replaced on the Trades building, for which we made cement bricks

New lawns, tree and shrub pruning, flower gardens and greenhouses given daily attention

1935

Work completed during the year:

Routine work of raising flowers and vegetables from seed in the greenhouse, pruning trees, caring for flower beds and assisting with work on the lawn

Much of the space once taken up with flowers was cultivated and planted in vegetables

Two of the four lower chicken runs were converted in vegetable gardens and the rock borders were removed to facilitate weeding and cultivating

Repair work on drains, stairs, walls and curbs

Foundation and floor for new garage

Coquitlam Star: Feb, 18 Francis Cecil Boyes,(b.1894, cert. - marriage cert. - d.1968, cert.)principal BISCO, to speak to the men’s club of the central Presbyterian church, with the lecture subject being.... “The Lad and his Dad ". ;

Aug, 29 R.Sharpe of Pitt Meadows, reports beehive missing, the empty hive was found empty at BISCO.

1936 A committee advises a Borstal system for ages 16-23.

1936 The "Boy's Industrial School" is converted to the "Essondale Home for the Aged" later Valleyview hospital.

1937

Work completed during the year:

Instruction by the gardener in the cultivation of flowers and vegetables in the greenhouse; the results were more than satisfactory. New Haven,(Borstal) opens on southeast side of Marine drive in Burnaby. Nineteen inmates; two staff.; Superintendent:A.McLead and office and educational secretary E.G.B.(Ernie)Stevens. Up to 1939 was known as the B.C.Training School. New Haven's name came from a CKNW radio contest. Closed in March,1942 after four years of operation. Re-opened in November,1947 as a training centre for young adult offenders. First warden;Selwyn Rocksborough-Smith.

1938

Work completed during the year:

Greenhouses and gardens;

Keen interest in the various methods of cultivation of flowers and vegetables

An increase in farm produce over the last year, in spite of decreased area under cultivation can be explained by the fact that fertilizer was used lavishly and hoeing and weeding kept pace with the growth

1939

Work completed during the year:

More emphasis has been placed on the garden this year. We are endeavoring to produce as many vegetables as possible in the hope that we may eventually reach a state of self-maintenance

We have had a very interested group of lads in the garden and they have taken an exceptional pride in their contribution to the School

Coquitlam Star, Jan 19, edition reports that, George Graham's car stolen from schoolhouse road was located four miles east of Spuzzum wrecked, two boys from BISCO responsible, two others found in Boston Bar.

1939: Elizabeth Fry Society created. Canada had to wait until the next year for theirs.

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1940-1950

1940

Work completed during the year: Greenhouses and gardens:

The garden supply of vegetables carried us well through the year. Credit for the work must go to the boys for their exceptionally keen interest in carrying out the program arranged. Cultivation weeding and thinning are always monotonous chores, but the destruction of weeds and the increased production are incentives to carry on

On wet days our work in the greenhouse, especially preparing our fall display of chrysanthemums, occupied our time. There were 142 pots of beautiful blooms which required a lot of attention

1941

Work completed during the year:

Our seeding season came off unexpectedly early, which is rather unusual for this part of British Columbia, making it necessary to rush our work at top speed

A larger area is being devoted to truck gardening66 with special emphasis on the vegetables required to make up a balanced diet

The harvest last fall turned out very well with a noticeable increase over the previous year

A variety of flowering and foliage plants brightened up the greenhouse during the winter months

A very attractive addition was made to our flowering shrubs by the purchase of a hundred roses of some dozen varieties which are doing very well

Some boulevard work was done last year and seeded to grass

Coquitlam Star, Nov, 13, edition reports that a three-storey building was being built by, Ward & Son, of New Westminster for $22,240. Kitchen on ground floor, dormitory on third floor.

1942

Work completed during the year:

Alterations to the vegetable storage building which cut down to a great extent the losses we were having in previous years

More land has been put to use for potatoes

This department would be noticeably improved if we could have some form of power cultivator as our population the past few years has been, on the average, composed of younger boys and they lack the strength to handle the work

Installation of steam heat from Essondale into the greenhouse, doing away with harmful coal fumes

1943 Port Coquitlam Population 2254 George Ross Principal of Bisco

1945-46 - Construction of Valleyview 6 and Valleyview 8.

1946 B.C.Probation act.,passed

1948: Industrial School for Boys Act, passed. Industrial School for Girls Act, passed.

1949: New Haven Act, passed.

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1950-1960

1952 Feb, l ; March,? ; April, 18 ; Sept,19 Bisco problems

1953 Jan, 30; May, 1 Bisco problems

1954: Brannan Lake Industrial School; Brannan Lake School for Boys, opens. Ran by the superintendent of child welfare, until 1969. Closed in 1983 and converted to Nanaimo Correctional Centre (NCC).

1955 Coquitlam Star Mar, 4 BISCO staff moving to Brannan lake.; Mar, 25 BISCO moved to Brannan Lake. In one month last summer eighty escaped. Thought to be responsible for twenty-five percent of the burglaries and breakins. Four to five broke out every week. Police expect a fifty percent drop in the local crime rate; Nanaimo now has the problem. ; May, 20 BISCO buildings to possibly replace the May,5 half-million dollar, uninsured building fire loss.

1960's: Corrections in BC;page 105; " It became apparent that the Family and Children's Court desperately needed extra resources in a more open setting for juveniles. Although a number of facilities were available to adult offenders, there were few alternatives for juveniles, which made up most of a probation officer's caseload. Many juveniles were placed in local lockups, sent to Riverview, incarcerated at severely overcrowded Brannan Lake, or transferred to adult court and placed in one of the young adult offender facilities. "

1963: Training Schools Act, passed.

1955-59 - Construction of the Valleyview Building

1957 - Construction of the Cemetery.

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Appendix

Representative List of Crops Grown at the Boy's Industrial School

Parsnips, Parsley, Potatoes, Green peas, Onions, Broad beans, Radishes, Lettuce, Corn, Beets, Cabbage, Cucumbers, Carrots, Curly kale, Leeks, Bush beans, Tomatoes, Vegetable marrow, Chives, Swiss Chard, String beans, Squash, Cauliflower, Pumpkin, Rhubarb, Turnips, Gooseberries, Red currants, Raspberries

Timothy hay grown on farm, Oats grown on farm, Green oats for silo, Corn and sunflowers for silo

Oats grown on farm, Ensilage, Mangolds, White carrots, Manure, Wood

Tree Fruit Varieties Commercially Available 1920-1940;

Apples: Alexander, Bismark, Yellow Transparent, Beauty of Bath, Red Astrachan, Duchess of Oldenburg, Graven stein, Baldwin, Delicious, Fameuse (Snow), Grimes Golden, Jonathan, King, Mclntosh Red, Newton Pippin, Northern Spy, Russet, Spitzenburg, Wagner, Winesap, Wealthy, Winter Banana

Apricots: Blenheim & Moorpark

Crabapple: Hysiop

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Bibliography

Annual Reports, Public Hospital for the Insane.

BCArchives: GR-0491 Provincial Industrial School for Boys records 1919-1978

BCSP Annual reports of the lands and works department.

Coquitlam Herald

Coquitlam Star

"Our history in a nutshell" BY: David J.Davies.

Corrections in British Columbia: Pre-Confederation to the Millenium.(2003)

Conflict,Care and Control: The history of the British Columbia Corrections Branch,1848-1988.

May I Talk to John Howard? The story of J.D.Hobden-A Friend to prisoners.

Schooling and society in 20th century British Columbia.

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